Now showing items 1-20 of 984

    • What does the so-called False Belief Task actually check?

      Ben-Yami, Hanoch; Ben-Yami, Maya; Ben-Yami, Yotham; Department of Philosophy (PsychArchives, 2019)
      There is currently a theoretical tension between young children’s failure in False Belief Tasks (FBTs) and their success in a variety of other tasks that also seem to require the ability to ascribe false beliefs to agents. We try to explain this tension by the hypothesis that in the FBT, children think they are asked what the agent should do in the circumstances and not what the agent will do. We explain why this hypothesis is plausible. We examined the hypothesis in two experiments, each involving a new task. In the first task, the hypothesised misunderstanding of the question leads to failure without the need to ascribe a false belief, and we show that failure in this new task is correlated with failure in the FBT. In the second task, passing which requires ascribing a false belief to an agent, and for which we have partial yet encouraging results, the children are asked a question which is unlikely to be misunderstood. Children pass this task much more often than they do a standard FBT. The mentioned tension is thus resolved. We conclude that the so-called False Belief Task probably does not check the ability to ascribe false beliefs but rather linguistic development.
    • The Structure of Space and Time, and the Indeterminacy of Classical Physics

      Ben-Yami, Hanoch; Department of Philosophy (arXiv, 2023)
      I explain in what sense the structure of space and time is probably vague or indefinite, a notion I define. This leads to the mathematical representation of location in space and time by a vague interval. From this, a principle of complementary inaccuracy between spatial location and velocity is derived, and its relation to the Uncertainty Principle discussed. In addition, even if the laws of nature are deterministic, the behaviour of systems will be random to some degree. These and other considerations draw classical physics closer to Quantum Mechanics. An arrow of entropy is also derived, given an arrow of time. Lastly, chaos is given an additional, objective meaning.
    • The Development of Descartes’ Idea of Representation by Correspondence

      Ben-Yami, Hanoch; Strazzoni, Andrea; Sgarbi, Marco; Department of Philosophy (Firenze University PressFirenze, 2023)
      Descartes was the first to hold that, when we perceive, the representation need not resemble what it represents but should correspond to it. Descartes developed this ground-breaking, influential conception in his work on analytic geometry and then transferred it to his theory of perception. I trace the development of the idea in Descartes’ early mathematical works; his articulation of it in Rules for the Direction of the Mind; his first suggestions there to apply this kind of representation-by-correspondence in the scientific inquiry of colours; and, finally, the transfer of the idea to the theory of perception in The World.
    • Remaking civil society under authoritarian capitalism. The case of the Orbán regime’s Hungarian Academy of Arts

      Nagy, Kristóf; Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology (2024)
      Authoritarian regimes are known for their attacks on civic organizations; however, this article demonstrates how such rules also set up and operate new forms of civil society. Drawing on a year-long ethnographic fieldwork at the cultural flagship institution of the Orbán-regime, the Hungarian Academy of Arts (HAA), this research engages with civic organizations often labeled as ‘uncivil,’ ‘dark,’ or ‘illiberal.’ Instead of applying the normative notion of civil society, it joins a century-long body of literature that, following Gramsci, stresses the integral nature of political and civil society. The article contributes to this research trajectory by spotlighting a new hegemonic regime’s dynamic remaking of civil society. The article conceptualizes the process of remaking civil society and reveals four facets beyond top-down command (1) the making of clientelist social relations that affect both the privileged and the rank-and-file actors, (2) the managed articulation of dissent toward the regime that pacifies discontent (3) the relative autonomy of regime-allied civic organizations and (4) the orchestration of pre-existing bottom-up initiatives. By coining the concept of recivilization, this article contributes to understanding how emerging regimes remake civil society and mobilize voluntary social practices to maintain their rule. Through this understanding, this article highlights that authoritarianism is more than top-down ruling and suggests the novel notion of recivilization as a concept to capture the pro-systemic role of civil society.
    • Women’s Labour Struggles in Central and Eastern Europe and Beyond: Toward a Long-Term, Transregional, Integrative, and Critical Approach

      Çağatay, Selin; Erdélyi, Mátyás; Ghiț, Alexandra; Gnydiuk, Olga; Helfert, Veronika; Masheva, Ivelina; Popova, Zhanna; Tešija, Jelena; Varsa, Eszter; Zimmermann, Susan; et al. (BrillLeiden - Boston, 2023)
      The introductory chapter provides a historiographic and thematic framing for the contributions and, we hope, for future research. The first section discusses the existing historiography of the region, highlighting the long history of writing on women’s labour activism in Central and Eastern Europe and its adjacent territories within and across the borders of different types of empires and nation-states, and across vastly diverse political regimes. The second section discusses key contributions of the chapters assembled in the volume to the study of women’s (and sometimes men’s) quests for the improvement of the lives and working conditions of women, pointing to their interconnections and highlighting their contributions to the development of long-term and transregional approaches to the history of women’s labour struggles. The third section expands on the rationale for studying women’s labour struggles from a long-term, transregional, integrative, and critical perspective, further discusses insights emerging from the volume and other scholarship, and highlights challenges as well as directions for ongoing and future research in the field of women’s labour activism.
    • A háborús nemi erőszak és a nőgyógyász lobbi hatása a magyarországi születésszabályozási rendszerre

      Pető, Andrea; Svégel, Fanni (2021)
      A tanulmány bemutatja, hogyan kapcsolódott össze a születésszabályozás és születéskorlátozás a tömeges nemi erőszakkal az első és a második világháborúban, továbbá hogyan erősítette fel a korábban is meglevő vitákat a nemi erőszak jelensége, illetve ennek milyen törvényi és a nők életdöntéseit befolyásoló gyakorlati következményei voltak. Az első világháború során elkövetett nemierőszak-esetek indították el a nyilvános szakpolitikai vitákat, amelyek nyomán fokozatosan egyre nagyobb teret engedtek a terhesség legális megszakításának. Az 1945-ös tömeges katonai erőszak pedig precedensértékű legalizációt hozott magával, ami után a magyar szabályozás a váltakozó szovjet családpolitikát követte. A cikk bemutatja, hogy a szülész–nőgyógyász lobbi hogyan vett részt a vitákban, illetve hogyan volt képes szakmai és anyagi érdekeit az éppen aktuális szakpolitikai döntések során is képviselni, például az 1952-es népesedéspolitikai kampány során. Az abortuszbizottságok és társadalmi szerepük meghatározónak bizonyultak legalább egy nőgeneráció számára. Az ötvenes évek elején megkezdődő erőteljes medikalizáció és adminisztrációs ellenőrzés a hetvenes évekre megváltoztatta a születésszabályozási rendszert: a terhességmegszakítások dominanciáját fokozatosan felváltotta a modern fogamzásgátló szerek széleskörű használata. Az újabb népesedéspolitikai kampány (1973) és a civil ellenállás, majd a rendszerváltást követő alkotmányos szabályozás körüli kiélezett viták mutatják a mára létrejött kényes egyensúly törékenységét és a kompromisszumos megoldás egyfajta lehetőségét.
    • Fear Eats the Soul: self-quarantining in an illiberal state

      Pető, Andrea (2020)
      Fear Eats the Soul is one of the several remarkable films by Rainer Werner Fassbinder from 1974. The unlikely love story between a 60 year old German widow, who works as a cleaner, and Moroccan guest worker in his late 30s, shows how fear is manifested in words, in actions and also in the stomach ulcer of the guest worker. Fear is a governing force of all lives: fear saves us from drowning in a steep river and fear also prevents us telling an honest opinion about our colleague’s work. Fear, especially one type of it, the ‘existential fear’, has recently been used as an explanation for the resurgence of illiberalism and different forms of populism. One fears from impoverishment, job loss, premature death due to an infection in the underfinanced health care system, loneliness and the real list of subjects of fear can go on. But fear is a tricky emotion as Fassbinder knew it so well. It eats the soul as it becomes a part of the body, and not only drives one’s actions but also makes life lived with dignity impossible.
    • ‘Unfettered Freedom’ Revisited: Hungarian Historical Journals between 1989 and 2018

      Pető, Andrea; Barna, Ildikó (2021)
      In his 1992 article, ‘Today, Freedom is Unfettered in Hungary,’ Columbia University history professor István Deák argued that after 1989 Hungarian historical research enjoyed ‘unfettered freedom. Deák gleefully listed the growing English literature on Hungarian history and hailed the ‘step-by step dismantling of the Marxist-Leninist edifice in historiography’ that he associated with the Institute of History at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS) under the leadership of György Ránki (1930–88). In this article he argued that the dismantling of communist historiography had started well before 1989. Besides celebrating the establishment of the popular science-oriented historical journal, History (História) (founded in 1979) and new institutions such as the Európa Intézet – Europa Institute (founded in 1990) or the Central European University (CEU) (founded in 1991) as turning points in Hungarian historical research, Deák listed the emergence of the question of minorities and Transylvania; anti-Semitism and the Holocaust; as well as the 1956 revolution. It is very true that these topics were addressed by prominent members of the Hungarian democratic opposition who were publishing in samizdat publications: among them János M. Rainer, the director of the 1956 Institute after 1989, who wrote about 1956. This list of research topics implies that other topics than these listed before had been free to research and were not at all political. This logic interiorised and duplicated the logic of communist science policy and refused to acknowledge other ideological interventions, including his own, while also insisting on the ‘objectivity’ of science. Lastly, Deák concluded that ‘there exists a small possibility that the past may be rewritten again, in an ultra-conservative and xenophobic vein. This is, however, only a speculation.’ Twenty years later Ignác Romsics, the doyen of Hungarian historiography, re-stated Deák's claim, arguing that there are no more ideological barriers for historical research. However, in his 2011 article Romsics strictly separated professional historical research as such from ‘dilettantish or propaganda-oriented interpretations of the past, which leave aside professional criteria and feed susceptible readers – and there are always many – with fraudulent and self-deceiving myths’. He thereby hinted at a new threat to the historical profession posed by new and ideologically driven forces. The question of where these ‘dilettantish or propaganda-oriented’ historians are coming from has not been asked as it would pose a painful question about personal and institutional continuity. Those historians who have become the poster boys of the illiberal memory politics had not only been members of the communist party, they also received all necessary professional titles and degrees within the professional community of historians.
    • "Better stories" in higher education. Cunning strategies for gender studies: What can you do when nothing can be done? Can the hangman be an ally of gender studies?

      Pető, Andrea (2023)
      This paper is based on two arguments: First, “grim storytelling” only gives access to part of the story and therefore needs to be supplemented with “better stories” — stories that generate an understanding of human potentiality, creativity, resilience, interconnectedness and shared “vulnerability”. Second, the tendency towards “grim storytelling” in critical social sciences constitutes a major limitation for the possibilities of imagining and enacting the very transformations that Europe most urgently needs in order to enhance the European project.
    • Angriffe gegen die Institutionen der Wissenschaft und ihre Instrumentalisierung im illiberalen Regime. Eine Anregung zum Überdenken der gesellschaftlichen Rolle der Wissenschaft und ihre Perspektiven

      Pető, Andrea; Strube, Sonja A.; Perintfalvi, Rita; Hemet, Raphaela; Metze, Miriam; Sahbaz, Cicek (transcript VerlagBielefeld, 2021)
      Systematische Angriffe auf die Geschlechtergerechtigkeit verschärfen sich weltweit und sind in einigen EU-Staaten bereits Teil des Regierungshandelns. Als Infragestellung basaler Menschenrechte und zumeist rechtspopulistisch bzw. fundamentalistisch motiviert gefährden sie die Demokratie. Aus internationaler und interdisziplinärer Perspektive analysieren die Beiträger*innen des Bandes Anti-Genderismus als strategisches Mittel der Emotionalisierung, Mobilisierung und Vernetzung innerhalb des rechten Spektrums und einer im Entstehen begriffenen religiösen Rechten. Mit besonderem Fokus auf die Situation einiger ostmitteleuropäischer Staaten und unter Einbezug von Erfahrungen aus dem LGBTIQ*-Aktivismus erörtern sie, wie dieser Entwicklung konstruktiv-widerständig zu begegnen ist.
    • Simulacrum of progressive politics

      Pető, Andrea; Bárd, Petra (L’HarmattanBudapest, 2022)
      This Liber Amicorum was compiled for the 70th birthday of Károly Bárd, lawyer, professor and legislator, in recognition of his academic work. Almost 70 colleagues, friends and students contributed to the two volumes of the Festschrift. The first volume comprises the studies written in Hungarian, while the second volume contains those written in English and German language. The anniversary volume was modelled on the genre of the German Festschrift, with the authors presenting their latest and most original ideas in their papers. Following the introductory contributions presenting the professional work of Károly Bárd, the studies in the first, Hungarian language volume, centre on four major topics: interdisciplinary legal theory, criminal policy and criminology; substantive criminal law; criminal procedure law; and human rights. Beside these topics, studies on two other research areas were also included in the foreign language volume: international criminal law and processing of the past; and the rule of law.
    • Gendering De‐Democratization: Gender and Illiberalism in Post‐Communist Europe

      Bogaards, Matthijs; Pető, Andrea (2022)
      Many observers have written with concern about a growing “opposition to gender equality,” “anti‐gender campaigns,” and even a “war on gender.” Often, these trends take place in countries that are witnessing a decline in democratic quality, a process captured by such labels as “democratic erosion,” “democratic backsliding,” or “autocratization.” This thematic issue brings together literature on gender equality and de‐democratization with an emphasis on the role of illiberalism and a regional focus on post‐communist Europe.