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dc.contributor.authorLaBelle, Michael Carnegie
dc.date.accessioned2023-07-24T12:17:33Z
dc.date.available2023-07-24T12:17:33Z
dc.date.issued2023-06-07
dc.identifier.issn1758-5880
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/1758-5899.13235
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14018/14058
dc.description.abstractThe Organization of the Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC) used oil as a weapon against Western countries supporting Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. From 2021, Russia used a similar strategy of restricting gas flows to Europe, while Europe later reduced Russia's market access. In these cases, there was economic and political damage. These examples show that energy is a weapon used to pressure sovereign states. Energy is a multidimensional resource that reflects broader ties within the political-economic system of international relations. This comparative study identifies four components that enable energy as a weapon: interdependence, energy security, neoliberal economics and sovereignty. Four key policy lessons emerge to improve energy security: (1) determine the acceptable limits of energy dependence, (2) acknowledge institutions and markets cannot deliver energy security outside their design parameters, (3) energy security requires addressing the entire value chain, and (4) energy is a weapon that threatens state sovereignty. The collapse of the gas trade between Russia and the EU creates instability and removes the pillar of interdependency; this now ushers in a new era.
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherWileyen_US
dc.rightsCC BY-NC 4.0
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
dc.subjectEnergy policyen_US
dc.subjectEnergy dependenceen_US
dc.titleEnergy as a weapon of war: Lessons from 50 years of energy interdependenceen_US
dc.typeJournal article
dc.source.journaltitleGlobal Policy
dc.source.volume14
dc.source.issue3
rioxxterms.versionVoRen_US
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1111/1758-5899.13235en_US
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_US
refterms.dateFCD2023-07-24T12:17:34Z
refterms.versionFCDVoR
refterms.dateFOA2023-07-24T12:17:34Z
html.description.abstractThe Organization of the Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC) used oil as a weapon against Western countries supporting Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. From 2021, Russia used a similar strategy of restricting gas flows to Europe, while Europe later reduced Russia's market access. In these cases, there was economic and political damage. These examples show that energy is a weapon used to pressure sovereign states. Energy is a multidimensional resource that reflects broader ties within the political-economic system of international relations. This comparative study identifies four components that enable energy as a weapon: interdependence, energy security, neoliberal economics and sovereignty. Four key policy lessons emerge to improve energy security: (1) determine the acceptable limits of energy dependence, (2) acknowledge institutions and markets cannot deliver energy security outside their design parameters, (3) energy security requires addressing the entire value chain, and (4) energy is a weapon that threatens state sovereignty. The collapse of the gas trade between Russia and the EU creates instability and removes the pillar of interdependency; this now ushers in a new era.en_US
dc.identifier.eissn1758-5899
dc.identifier.pii10.1111/1758-5899.13235
dc.source.beginpage531
dc.source.endpage547


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